The title of the article is, Synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on acute toxicity of pyrethrins to Hyalella azteca.
Abstract: A series of acute toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca was performed to quantify the synergistic effect of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on pyrethrin toxicity. Concentrations of PBO <4 mg/L caused no toxicity enhancement, whereas toxicity increased with PBO concentrations between 4 mg/L and 15 mg/L. Additive toxicity calculations showed that true synergism accounted for an increase in pyrethrin toxicity (decrease in median lethal concentration) of 1.4-fold to 1.6-fold and varied only slightly between 4mg/L and 15 mg/L PBO, whereas direct toxicity of PBO accounted for an additional increase in mixture toxicity (up to 3.2-fold) that was proportional to PBO concentration. The results can be used to assess the risk of measured or predicted co-occurring concentrations of PBO and Pyrethrins in surface waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016; 9999:1–6. © 2016 SETAC
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